A militarized state whose past was frequently matted with its military history, ancient Rome military centers on the account of great land battles, from the defeat of Italy to its final battles against the Huns. The “Roman Army” as often called, was the name given by English-speakers to the soldiers and other ancient Rome military forces who served the kingdom, the republic, and later the empire of Rome.
Ancient Rome military words in general, were based on the word for one soldier, miles. The Roman army in broad was the militia, and the commander of the military operation was the militiae magister. During the republic times, the general was perhaps called imperator or “commander” such as Caesar imperator, but during the empire period, the name became exclusive for the highest office.
During the peak of the Roman Empire, ancient Rome military dominated much of the land neighboring the Mediterranean Sea, including Asia Minor and Britannia. There is little information on ancient Rome military under the monarchy, and even before the monarchy was overthrown, where the Roman Army became a citizen army. The transition was notoriously incompetent; it became a professional army with professional generals in the long struggle with the Carthaginians, and became a superior army following the reorganization of Gaius Marius around 100 B.C.
Ancient Rome military ended on a less favorable finale, as Rome became what one could call a military dictatorship, where the army began to play a role in selecting emperors, as well as removing them normally through assassination. The imperator position became a very risky office to hold, which sooner or later the senate declined to nominate any more nominees and left the selection entirely to the army. However, the decision did not bring stability to the Roman government, in the end the empire split in two and then fell apart into rival, warring armies. Soon enough there were but few Romans in the army, and consisted mainly of provincial troops because of the practice of pacifying enemies through letting them serve in the army, who exerted military discipline over the Roman army.
Polybius, a historian, gave a clear image of the republican army and what is possibly its peak in 160 B.C., where serving the army in Rome became a public duty, and one had to meet a property requirement to serve the infantry.
Throughout the history of ancient Rome military, from the republican period to the imperial period, the Roman army evolved and played a very important role in all of the Rome’s history. It is a wide held judgment among historians that the barbarization of the standard armed forces contributed to the phenomenon of what was called the “Fall of the Roman Empire”.